28.12.2008

Fethiye-TURKEY


Fethiye is located on the Lycian and Carian border and was called Telmessos in ancient times. The city was very prominent and a centre of prophecy, pledged to Apollon. That the city life was rich and highly cultured during the Hellenistic and Roman periods is evident from the existing monuments. Today the majority of ancient ruins in Telmessos are rock-tombs, Lycian-type sarcophagi, the fortress and the Roman Theatre. The peninsula lying between Fethiye and Antalya was known as Lycia in the ancient times. Lycians were natives of Anatolia and sea-faring people as mentioned in Homer’s Iliad and Kadesh War Peace Agreement document.
The tomb of Amyntas, which could be considered as the insignia of Fethiye, strikes the eye with its grandeur on the slope as you enter the bay. This tomb, whose façade was built as an Ionic temple based on the plan of in antis, belonged to Amyntas is believed to be a king or a governor of Telmessos during the Hellenistic period.Within the city there are quite a number of Lycian-type sarcophagi. On these there are epitaphs in the Lycian scripture. Especially the sarcophagus near the government house is worthy of notice, with its relieves depicting warriors.The fortress stands where the city was first founded and the existing walls are from the 11th Century. At same places, portions of walls from the Roman period can be seen. The fortress was repaired by the Rhodesian Knights during the 15th Century and was used as a naval base. Telmessos Ancient Theatre stands opposite to the commercial quay at Fethiye town centre. Typical Roman type theatre was built in 2nd. Century on the remains of a Greek style previous one. The site was escavated by the Fethiye Archaeology Museum in 1993 and a restoration project was made to renovate the theatre’s cavea and stage. Fethiye Archaeology Museum exhibits numerous Archaeological findings from the Lycian, Hellenistic, Roman and Ottoman periods as well as ethnological works of art typical of the region.

There is a new project to be realised in 2001—2002 for a new “open-air Museum complex with the ancient theatre”. Fethiye Municipality and the Directory of Museum are leading this project to reform the centre of town with the idea of protecting natural and cultural environments of Fethiye. The Teke Peninsula of our times, lying between Fethiye and Antalya was known as LYCIA in the ancient times. In fact the Lycians participated in the Kadesh War together with Hittites, Which indicates that they were one of the oldest tribes of Anatolia. All through the history, Lycia was invaded by the Persians, Alexander The Great, Romans and Byzantines but was never evacuated. Fethiye is an appropriate centre for excursions into Lycia. Either on your own or by organised daily tours, you can pay visits to major Lycian cities in the region.

Fethiye has always been a major area of settlement throughout the history. This is due to the fact that the region is opulent in all aspects of subsistance. It bears the stamp of all the people living here in various periods, The region was known as ''Telmessos" during the Lycian times until the Roman Empire, when it was referred to as "Makri" (Megri), meaning far-off !and. In 1282 Mentese Beg, the founder of the Mentese Principality, fought with the Byzarithians and onquered Makri, PUR-suant to this dote, although in the official documents name Makri (Megri) was still in use, the popular name among the residents was "Iskete" or "Beskaza". The name Iskele was derived from the use of this town by the Ottoman Empire for sailing out to Rhodes and the out side world.

Similarly, the name Beskaza was in frequent use during the Ottoman times. As the central government had a hard time to dea with local matters, five regional ad ministrations were established. Under the auspices of the central administration, the five kadhis (local gover- nors) of Uzumlu, Yaka-Doger, Yakabag-Esen; Oren and Kaya were appointed. The name Beskaza was very popular and there are several folk dances and song bearing this name.

In the year 1914, a new name'appears. At that the Megri Municipal Council proposed changing. The name of "Megri" to commemorate Fethi Bey, the first Turkish pilot who was killed in a. crash near Taberiye This proposal was approved by the Council, presided by the Mayor of the time, Musaoğlu Mehmet cen, and the name "Fethiye" was used in all documentation However, due to the First World War and the subsequ ent Independence War, the Council of Ministers 2 approval could be obtained only in1934.
GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONthe town of Fethiye, Mugla, is situated Anatolia in fhe laiifude and tongitude lines or 37 00 north, 36 15'28 50' wes1 and 29 50 east. It is surrounded in fhe south by Çayağzı where the Esen River reaches rhe sea, in the west by the Kapdağ peninsula and Dalomon district, in the south and southwest by fhe Mediterranean and the district of Kas. in the east by Korkuteli and Elmalı, and in the north bv Golhisar and (dameli districts, heihiye is noted for ITS natural beauty, as well as historical and tounristic values. and is located on the Medilerronean coastline in the neighbourhood of Dalaman, another district of Muğla.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHYGeological Structure The formations of land in and around Fethiye, located in the western part of the teke peninsula are diversified. Indeed, there are various litholoqical units which surfaced dunring the Paleozoic period and continued their formation through Carbonipherious, Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary eras to our present day. The lithological units in the region, defined as Lycian Naps, demonstrate diversified morphological formations of sedimentary rocks in various eras. Among them are relatively younger units of Tertiary and Quaternary periods. Pursuant to the Alpinian orogenism, as a result of the epeirogenic movements, the land exhibits a refracted structure. The faulty curves are examples of this structure. Paleozoic formations consist of the Karadag series, Akkavak formations and the Teke River series.The Mesozoic formations ore Haticeana mountain series, Çenger, Agacli, Babadag formations, the Kayakoy dolomite and Sandak, Göç Gediği and Sofular formations.The Tertiary formations are between the Beydaglar otokton and the Lycian naps and this is defined as the "intermediary zone". The Lycian naps made up the alloktons within the region. The structural units of the Lycian naps are in three groups as ophiolite lower naps (higher naps).

The Quarternary formations are the Oren and Düzcam formations dating to the Fourth era.
Mountains
As the Fethiye region is made up of young folds with a massif structure, vulcanisation is not witnessed on a large scae. The mountains are Kizilbel (1060 meters) at the boundary of Dalaman in the west and Kızıldag (984 meters) to its east, the Eicik mountains (Sulüklu, Aygir, Dumlu, simsir, Ortacal, 2185 meters) in the northeastern direction, Çal mountains (2185 meters and the Garkın mountain (1260 meters) towards the east, the Kartal mountain (2600 meters) where the western branches of the Esen river (Xanthos) spring from, turning to southeast after the Kurumca and Avion mountains and to northeast with the Girdev mountain. With Erbel and Gubele mountains and the Kizilagoc (2591 meters) this formation ends at the Sogüt Lake in the south. This mountainous area gets higher starting from the border of the Fethiye plain, reaching its maximum point at the summit of Çaldag. It loses its altitude in the direction of west to the east and is cut off by an alluvian plain in the valley of the Esen River. This mountainous region forms part of the Western Taurus Mountains and is generally made up of masses of limestone dating back to the Mesozoic era. A second group of mountains lies to the south of Fethiye. Among them, Babadag (1975 meters) reaches its maximal altitude in the north and opens up almost like a wall which is the most rugged terrain. Beyond Akbel, also known as the cistern saddle which. constitutes a short-cut between Kestep and Fethiye, the Mendos Mountain gains altitude gradually. Arydag (Mendos, 1775 meters) suddenly gets very high in the south of Fethiye and consists of limestone flooring from the Triassfc, Cretaceous and Eocenic periods. Arıdag IMendos) constitutes an anticlinorium in the east-west direction. Along the coastline, Dokuzgol mountain (1487 meters), Erendag and Sandak mountain (Kragos, 1025 meters) line up, reaching the Esen River (Xanthos) plain. In the Antique Period this region was called Antikragos. Akdag (Massikitos, 3024 meters), located near the Girdev mountain in the east of the Esen River, between the Elmalı pasture in the east and Dumanlı and Katran mountains in the south, is the highest mountain in the region.Erendag (2439 meters), Salur mountain (2596 meters) and Kizilagac (2591 meters) in the east, Kelebekli mountain (2160 meters) in the north, Güntutan mountain (2418 meters)-and Caldag (2184 meters) in the west are the primary mountainous terrain around the basin of the Upper .Esen River. To the east of the Esen River there are many mountains as well. Those in the south are either perpendicular or parallel, to the sea-coast, constituting in jagged coastline.PLAINSThe Fethiye plain is in a hollow area in comparison to the mountainous areas in the north and South: Techtonic movements played a major "part in the formation of the plain. The chute in the direction of east-west supports the theory that there exists the floor; of a graben running from north to west, formed as a result of gradated faults. The serpentine saddle of Murt in the east of the bay folding into the ridges is due to alluviums carried by the minor floods in the area. The meterial carried over by the Cerci stream, Eldirek creek and Mersinli stream, when the flow of water loses its velocity, results in detritus .heaps which fan our in the Fethiye plain. The plain is not on 0 level area. The Fethiye plain is fed by alluviums from its limited Framework. Because the plain is surrounded by serpentine rocks, it is not very fertile due to the failure of the reddish soil to absorb other elements. The old Fethiye, situated in the south-western part of the plain is located on terraces. Here, there are terraces on the coast, representative of the ebb tides of the Mediterranean. Fethiye has developed along these terraces and continues growing along the coastline. In addition, in the southern part of the bay, new settlements are in evidence, extending towards the slopes of the mountains in the south.The Uzumlu plain was formed as a result of karstic events. The floor of the plain is 10.000 square meters, covered by alluviums. The body of wafer flowing down to the plain, is fed by karstic spring waters, which go underground by virtue of sinkholes along the northern and southern coastline. Farming is carried out in this region which is interrupted from time to time. the Seki plain is one of the major areas in this region. "The Upper and the Lower Seki plains were formed first_of all by techtonic events as a result or which the disentanqled rubbles were carried here and stocked up in the sediment basin. The Lower Seki plain is a typical deposit of alluvium, Il kms.lonq in the east-west direction, with a width of 4-5 kms. From the north to the south. The Upper Seki plain (Mindan Plain) was o lake in the past. When the water supply dried up, the floor of the lake became a plain. The plain is 6-7 kms.long in the northeastern-southwestern direction and roughly 4-4.5 kms.wide from the east to the west.The Caltilar plain generally resembles the Upper and the Lower Seki Plains. At the same time, it is separated from the surrounding area of limestone in jagged lines which indicates a karstic origin. The floor of the plain is mainly terra rosa soil pointing to its formation under the conditions of the Mediterranean climate.In the Andag [Mendos) region, Kaya and Ovacık plains are characteristically marred. The fault line in the area where the Ovacyk plain joins the foot of Andag is worthy of notice. In the formation of the Ovacik plain, techtonic and karstic movements were influential. The plain is approximately 9-10 square kilometers with detritus heaps in the east and in the north.In the streams fed by the basisn of the Esen River, there are comparatively thick layers of alluvium ( 20-50 metersin the Temeland Yayla Ceylan villages). In the northeast of Esen, the detritus heaps in front of the eastern slopes of the valley resulted in a piedmont plane. Before the formation of the delta of the Esen River, in ate Neogene and early Quaternary periods, the present delta was a large bay. The drainage in the Esen Valley occured very speedily and at the same time the correlated filling material extended the area of the delta. At the site of Kayakoy, some of the rock tombs are submerged into the sea. Similarly, the Letoon antique city in the delta area is covered by alluviums which is indicative of techtonic movements in the region. The eastern part of the delta of the Esen River has a floor of lagoon while the middle part is an area of precipic

NATURAL RICHESGEBELER THERMAL SPRINGAl the southeast of Saklikent, it is at a distance of 35 kms.to Fethiye. If is believed to be an imperial sprig of the Lycian Kingdom. I he temperature of the water at the spring is 36.3 to 38 C. It has a high content of sulphur, as well as many other minerals. The natural pool is underground at a depth, at 25 meters. The pool with on exotic atmosphere, is very popular amonq the inhabitants as a cure for many ailments. The spring provides a cure for the following sicknesses: Sterility, skin diseases, gynecological diseases, gastric and intestinal diseases, burns and open sores, odor of perspiration lumbago and rheumatism.

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