20.11.2008

Ephesos (İzmir) Turkey









Ephesos was first established as a port in the 10th century BC, was re-established at the beginning of the Hellenistic period and prospered into the Ottoman period. The Artemision at Ephesos was regarded as one of the wonders of the ancient world. Excavations at the site were undertaken by British archaeologist J. T. Wood and from 1895 by Austrian scholars. The expedition is currently directed by Friedrich Krinzinger.


2005 and 2006
Work continued on the documentation of the theatre using digital means and achieved some clarification of the construction phases. Two Hellenistic phases have been identified, as well as phases of the Flavian, Antonine and late Roman periods.


Slope House 2 was opened to the public on 21 June 2006. Transparent floors have been installed so that all the spaces can be seen and a wooden architrave has been erected over the peristyle of Unit 2 and Unit 6. The work in Unit 6 uncovered a refurbishment of the 3rd century AD. A computer reconstruction of Unit 6 shows the marble revetment with inscription and opus sectile.

Soundings have helped clarify the chronology of the Byzantine Governor's Palace in the centre of the Byzantine city. It is to the east of the main modern car park. North of this is a bath complex built over early Roman Imperial houses. In 2005 the study of the Vedius Gymnasium was completed, with the discovery of a stoa along the east end of the north face of the building. Stairs go up to the palaestra, and there are also stairs oriented westwards, creating a new interpretation of the relationship between the north part of the city and the countryside. At the southeast corner of the palaestra was found a large building of unclear function. In 2006 the connection of the Byzantine city wall and the gymnasium was examined. A 3D reconstruction of the wall at this point was made. At St Paul's Cave work continued on restoration of the frescoes, with their many phases.

In 2005 work began on a geophysical survey and digital plan of the city and this continued in 2006. In the western area, in the saddle between the so-called Prison of St Paul and Bülbüldağ, a densely settled urban area was recorded. The flat land south of the Arkadian Way was also examined, revealing irregular structures that should belong to the Byzantine phase of the city. Especially fruitful was the study of the terraces on the north slope of Bülbüldağ, where the continuity of the Hellenistic-Roman city plan is not so clear. Radar prospection suggests that the street grid continues in the region of the slope houses and extends west from the State Agora to the so-called Domitian's square.

In other work, a re-examination of Trajan's Fountain was begun to allow full publication of the monument, and some investigations took place at the Magnesian Gate area, at the so-called East Gymnasium.

On Ayasoluk study of the İsa Bey Hamam has been completed and in 2005 study of Hamam 3, to the west of the İsa Bey Mosque, began. At the southwest corner was found a square well. Within it, in a sealed stratigraphic context 3 m deep, were found horse and dog bones as well as two human skeletons. The deposit is dated by coins of the 15th century AD.

Study at the Belevi Mausoleum identified eight groups who worked on the podium. The publication of the mausoleum will appear at the end of 2006. An anastylosis of the Octagon using 3D laser scanning technology was also begun. To the north of Slope House 2, it is associated with the tomb of Arsinoe IV, sister of Cleopatra, who in 42 BC was taken from asylum in the Artemision and executed by Mark Anthony's troops.


2004
In 2004 work was undertaken in a number of areas. The director kindly provided this information on the highlights of the season.

A new definitive study of the Mausloeum at Belevi has determined that it can securely be dated to the early 3rd century BC based on the style of the architectural ornament and ceramic finds from the new excavations, which have also revealed more fragments of relief coffers depicting a centauromachy. It is now clear that the tomb was not covered by a pyramidal roof, but rather consisted of a covered columnar peristasis surrounding an open inner court. The main entrance from the north was emphasized by an inner colonnade of fine palmette capitals behind an exterior row of Corinthian columns. The inner tomb chamber, cut out of bedrock, contained the finds, including the kline sarcophagus, now on display in the Selçuk Museum. Their context was reconstructed on the basis of in situ finds such as the impression of the legs of a table on marble slabs of the floor and the location of a life-size statue of a royal attendant. Excavation and study of the theatre revealed that it has existed at its present location since the 3rd century BC and that it went through at least two or three refurbishments from the Domitianic to Late Roman periods.

Research also focused on the enormous growth of the city in the Hellenistic period, and attempted to define the extent and plan of the Hellenistic city founded by Lysimachus, particularly the ports between the two fortifications in the extreme west and north-east of the city. A major wall, which may belong to this phase of urbanism in the 3rd century BC, was found underneath the Slope Houses during restoration of a mosaic in room 25 of residential unit 5 of Slope House 2. Discovery of a small fragment of brightly coloured wall mosaic, similar to examples at Delos and Pergamon dated to the 2nd half of the 2nd century BC, suggests that luxury residences also occupied this area in the Hellenistic period.

Re-examination of the bath-gymnasium complex known as the Vedius Gymnasium has discovered more fragments of a major statuary display honouring the family of Vedius in the 2nd century AD in the so-called Kaisersaal. The statue group, which belongs to the original phase of the gymnasium, was later deposited during the levelling of the area around 400 AD as part of a major refurbishment. Excavations of the bath complex of the gymnasium revealed the use of the latest technological innovations, including a well-preserved testudo to regulate the heating of the water.

The completion in 2000 of a remarkable new roofing system, made of teflon material, over the well-preserved Slope House 2 (4000 square metre) ensured its preservation and aided the study of its residential units. Analysis of the phasing of the units has revealed catastrophic layers resulting from earthquakes and a fire, the latest dated to the 260s based on coin evidence, and has provided a new and important terminus ante quem for the wall paintings and finds in the units. This redating will have a major impact, particularly on the chronology of Roman wall painting in the eastern provinces.

2 yorum:

  1. I just wanna say that this a beautiful view...

    YanıtlaSil
  2. Turkey is a place where I am determined to visit someday! I am fascinated with the beautiful building architectures, the music, and the people. It is such a beautiful place with so much rich history! Thanks for sharing these pictures! I really have enjoyed my visit here.
    ~K

    YanıtlaSil